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O =}IPv6 Overview & Status Report,April 18, 2002 CBackground Technology Overview Deployment Strategies Current StatusDD Why IPv6? (Theoretical Reasons)only compelling reason: more IP addresses! for billions of new users (Japan, China, India,& ) for billions of new devices (mobile phones, cars, appliances,& ) for always-on access (cable, xDSL, ethernet-to-the-home,& ) for applications that are difficult, expensive, or impossible to operate through NATs (IP telephony, peer-to-peer gaming, home servers,& ) to phase out NATs to improve the robustness, security, performance, and manageability of the InternetB,PaBUIP Address Allocation History 1981 - IPv4 protocol published 1985 ~ 1/16 of total space 1990 ~ 1/8 of total space 1995 ~ 1/4 of total space 2000 ~ 1/2 of total space this despite increasingly intense conservation efforts PPP / DHCP address sharing CIDR (classless inter-domain routing) NAT (network address translation) plus some address reclamation theoretical limit of 32-bit space: ~4 billion devices practical limit of 32-bit space: ~250 million devices (see RFC-3194)p7m7mfG  E Other Benefits of IPv6server-less plug-and-play possible end-to-end, IP-layer authentication & encryption possible elimination of  triangle routing for mobile IP other minor improvements NON-benefits: quality of service (same QoS capabilities as IPv4) flow label field in IPv6 header may enable more efficient flow classification by routers, but does not add any new capability routing (same routing protocols as IPv4) except larger address allows more levels of hierarchy except customer multihoming is defeating hierarchyP3P~P)P6P3P 3~)6  2, $Why IPv6? (Current Business Reasons)demand from particular regions Asia, EU technical, geo-political, and business reasons demand is now demand for particular services cellular wireless (especially 3GPP[2] standards) Internet gaming (e.g., Sony Playstation 2) use is >= 1.5 years away (but testbeds needed now) potential move to IPv6 by Microsoft? IPv6 included in Windows XP, but not enabled by default to be enabled by default in next major release of Windows use is >= 1.5 years awayZFZZZ%ZZF%    , ! CBackground Technology Overview Deployment Strategies Current Status,D % %IPv6 Header compared to IPv4 Header$&   Summary of Header Changes Revised Addresses increased 32 bits -> 128 bits Time to Live -> Hop Limit Protocol -> Next Header Type of Service -> Traffic Class Streamlined Fragmentation fields moved out of base header IP options moved out of base header Header Checksum eliminated Header Length field eliminated Length field excludes IPv6 header Alignment changed from 32 to 64 bits Extended Flow Label field addedZZ ZZ ZZ    !How Was IPv6 Address Size Chosen?(some wanted fixed-length, 64-bit addresses easily good for 1012 sites, 1015 nodes, at .0001 allocation efficiency (3 orders of mag. more than IPng requirement) minimizes growth of per-packet header overhead efficient for software processing some wanted variable-length, up to 160 bits compatible with OSI NSAP addressing plans big enough for auto-configuration using IEEE 802 addresses could start with addresses shorter than 64 bits & grow later settled on fixed-length, 128-bit addresses (340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 in all!)+,+>+   ,+  4    ,  Text Representation of Addresses preferred form: 1080:0:FF:0:8:800:200C:417A compressed form: FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:43 becomes FF01::43 IPv4-embedded: 0:0:0:0:0:FFFF: or ::FFFF: (Text Representation of Addresses (cont.)address prefix: 2002:43c:476b::/48 (note: no masks in IPv6!) zone qualifiers: FE80::800:200C:417A%3 in URLs: http://[3FFE::1:800:200C:417A]:8000 (square-bracket convention also used anywhere else there s a conflict with address syntax)x $'["p#])DrBasic Address Types Address Type Prefixesan address s type is determined by its leading bits: type binary prefix unspecified 0000& & .0000 (128 bits) loopback 0000& & .0001 (128 bits) multicast 11111111 (8 bits) unicast / anycast everything else the unspecified address indicates the absence of an address the loopback address is a special-case unicast address anycast addresses are indistinguishable from unicastT9 r 3Q  &#General Format of Unicast Addressesunicast addresses are hierarchical, just like IPv4 the global routing prefix is itself hierarchically structured, usually a  subnet is usually the same as a link, but: may have more than one subnet ID for the same link (proposed) a subnet ID may span multiple links&cc'Interface ID Field of Unicast Addresses the interface ID is equivalent to the  host field in an IPv4 address (but more accurately named) if leading bits of address = 000, interface ID may be any width if leading bits of address `" 000, interface ID is 64 bits wideConfiguring Interface IDs~there are several choices for configuring the interface ID of an address: manual configuration (of interface ID or whole addr) DHCPv6 (configures whole address) automatic derivation from 48-bit IEEE 802 address or 64-bit IEEE EUI-64 address pseudo-random generation (for client privacy) the latter two choices enable  serverless or  stateless autoconfiguration, when combined with high-order part of the address learned via Router Advertisements<JJ>y VGlobal Unicast Addresses Aonly 1/8th of total space (binary 001 prefix) used initially global routing prefix is hierarchically structured, using CIDR-type allocation and routing (at least for now!) agreed policy is for every subscriber site (e.g., corporate site, campus, residence, etc.) to be assigned a 48-bit prefix => 16 bits of subnet space BAj&Why Fixed-Length, 16-bit Subnet Field?fixed length minimizes subscriber hassles when changing service providers or when multi-homing 16-bits is enough for all but the largest subscribers a standard size eliminates need for most subscribers to provide address space justifications and projections to ISPs (for more rationale, see RFC 3177, IAB / IESG Recommendations on IPv6 Address Allocations to Sites) is remaining 45 bits enough to address all subscribers??H  C9The HD Ratio (RFC-3194)measures  pain level of a given level of utilization of a hierarchical address space, on a scale of 0 to 1 HD = log ( number of addressed objects ) / log ( total number of addresses) historical analysis of IPv4, US phone numbers, French phone numbers, DECnet IV, etc. shows remarkable consistency: HD = 0.80 manageable ( 51M for 32-bit space) HD = 0.85 painful (154M for 32-bit space) HD = 0.87 practical limit (240M for 32-bit space) 888,i HD Ratio Applied to 45-bit Space45-bit space for sites holds 35 trillion numbers achievable utilization, according to HD ratio: HD = 0.80 manageable = 70 billion HD = 0.85 painful = 330 billion HD = 0.87 practical limit = 610 billion current world population is 6.1 billion, projected to peak at 9 to 12 billion in about 2070 remember: this is still using only 1/8th of total IPv6 address space; majority of space is being kept in reserve in case these projections miss the mark8`z`z,TLA / NLA Terminology (Soon to be Obsolete!);TLA = Top-Level Aggregator NLA* = Next-Level Aggregator(s) this structure is defined in existing IPv6 Address Architecture RFCs and registry policy documents, but has been dropped in more recent revisions regional internet registries (RIRs) are responsible for structure/allocation of the 45-bit global routing part$<,{lMNon-Global AddressesHIPv6 includes non-global addresses, similar to IPv4 private addresses ( net 10 , etc.) a topological region within which such non-global addresses are used is called a zone zones come in different sizes, called scopes (e.g., link-local, site-local,& ) unlike in IPv4, a non-global address zone is also part of the global addressable region (the  global zone ) => an interface may have both global and non-global addressesg>'"^ Address Zones and ScopesProperties of Zones and Scopes,zones of the same scope do not overlap, e.g., two sites cannot overlap (i.e., cannot have any links in common) zones of smaller scope nest completely within zones of larger scope zones of same scope can reuse addresses of that scope (e.g., the same site-local address can occur in more than one site)&Properties of Zones and Scopes (cont.)the scope of an address is encoded in the address itself, but the zone of an address is not that s why the  %zone-id qualifier is needed, in the text representation of addresses for a non-global address received in a packet, its zone is determined based on what interface it arrived on packets with a source or destination address of a given scope are kept within a zone of that scope (enforced by zone-boundary routers) zone boundaries always cut through nodes, not links or interfacesl\c$B\c$AZone Boundaries Non-Global Unicast Addresses  link-local unicast addresses are meaningful only in a single link zone, and may be re-used on other links site-local unicast addresses are meaningful only in a single site zone, and may be re-used in other sites< b `, eXMulticast Addressesnlow-order flag indicates permanent / transient group; three other flags reserved scope field: 1 - interface-local (for multicast loopback) 2 - link-local (same as unicast link-local) 3 - subnet-local 4 - admin-local 5 - site-local (same as unicast site-local) 8 - organization-local B - community-local E - global (same as unicast global) (all other values reserved)dZ0Z0Z^-xkPDL$Address Space Layout GAn Interface on an IPv6 Node Can, and Usually Will, Have Many AddressesLink-Local Site-Local Auto-configured 6to4 (if IPv4 public is address available) Solicited-Node Multicast All-Nodes Multicast Global anonymous Global published.,&N IPv6 Routinguses same  longest-prefix match routing as IPv4 CIDR straightforward changes to existing IPv4 routing protocols to handle bigger addresses unicast: OSPF, RIP-II, IS-IS, BGP4+, & multicast: MOSPF, PIM, & good news: minimal training required for operators bad news: routing is in trouble, and IPv6 doesn t have any magic bullets  multi6 WG is grappling with this8@@oXServerless Autoconfiguration ( Plug-n-Play ) -hosts can construct their own addresses: subnet prefix(es) learned from periodic multicast advertisements from neighboring router(s) interface IDs generated locally, e.g., using MAC addresses other IP-layer parameters also learned from router adverts (e.g., router addresses, recommended hop limit, etc.) higher-layer info (e.g., DNS server and NTP server addresses) discovered by multicast / anycast-based service-location protocol [details still to be decided] DHCP also available for those who want more controlr)ZZCZ);6+C5 pHAuto-Reconfiguration ( Renumbering ) %Jnew address prefixes can be introduced, and old ones withdrawn we assume some overlap period between old and new, i.e., no  flash cut-over hosts learn prefix lifetimes and preferability from router advertisements old TCP connections can survive until end of overlap; new TCP connections can survive beyond overlap router renumbering protocol, to allow domain-interior routers to learn of prefix introduction / withdrawal6?k?k {Mobile IP (v4 version)  |Mobile IP (v6 version) CBackground Technology Overview Deployment Strategies Current Status,D .IPv4-IPv6 Transition / Co-Existence Techniquesa wide range of techniques have been identified and implemented, basically falling into three categories: (1) dual-stack techniques, to allow IPv4 and IPv6 to co-exist in the same devices and networks (2) tunneling techniques, to avoid order dependencies when upgrading hosts, routers, or regions (3) translation techniques, to allow IPv6-only devices to communicate with IPv4-only devices expect all of these to be used, in combinationjZZ/Zj T W M/Dual-Stack Approachwhen adding IPv6 to a system, do not delete IPv4 this multi-protocol approach is familiar and well-understood (e.g., for AppleTalk, IPX, etc.) note: in most cases, IPv6 will be bundled with new OS releases, not an extra-cost add-on applications (or libraries) choose IP version to use when initiating, based on DNS response: if (dest has AAAA or A6 record) use IPv6, else use IPv4 when responding, based on version of initiating packet this allows indefinite co-existence of IPv4 and IPv6, and gradual app-by-app upgrades to IPv6 usage1ZZ5Z(Z8Z7ZdZ! 5(87 d,Tunnels to Get Through IPv6-Ignorant Routersencapsulate IPv6 packets inside IPv4 packets (or MPLS frames) many methods exist for establishing tunnels: manual configuration  tunnel brokers (using web-based service to create a tunnel)  ISATAP (intra-domain, using IPv4 addr as IPv6 interface ID)  6-to-4 (inter-domain, using IPv4 addr as IPv6 site prefix) can view this as: IPv6 using IPv4 as a virtual link-layer, or an IPv6 VPN (virtual public network), over the IPv4 Internet (becoming  less virtual over time, we hope)Tkk TranslationCmay prefer to use IPv6-IPv4 protocol translation for: new kinds of Internet devices (e.g., cell phones, cars, appliances) benefits of shedding IPv4 stack (e.g., serverless autoconfig) this is a simple extension to NAT techniques, to translate header format as well as addresses IPv6 nodes behind a translator get full IPv6 functionality when talking to other IPv6 nodes located anywhere they get the normal (i.e., degraded) NAT functionality when talking to IPv4 devices methods used to improve NAT functionality (e.g, RSIP) can be used equally to improve IPv6-IPv4 functionalityT6ZZ^Z.Z6^.CBackground Technology Overview Deployment Strategies Current Status D5  Standardscore IPv6 specifications are IETF Draft Standards => well-tested & stable IPv6 base spec, ICMPv6, Neighbor Discovery, PMTU Discovery, IPv6-over-Ethernet, IPv6-over-PPP,... other important specs are further behind on the standards track, but in good shape mobile IPv6, header compression,... for up-to-date status: playground.sun.com/ipng 3GPP UMTS Release 5 cellular wireless standards mandate IPv6; also being considered by 3GPP2nJbSU]JbSU\ImplementationsIPv6 is shipping as a standard feature on most major IP platforms today BSD Unix (all flavors), Cisco, Compaq, Ericsson, HP, IBM, Juniper, Linux, Microsoft, Nokia, Sun, and many more in many cases, still missing major pieces e.g., IPsec for IPv6, mobility, multicast, QoS,& implementations have been well-tested at frequent multi-vendor events `Ho*1GHo*1G>E J Deploymentexperimental infrastructure: the 6bone for testing and debugging IPv6 protocols and operations (see www.6bone.net) production infrastructure in support of education and research: the 6ren CAIRN, Canarie, CERNET, Chunahwa Telecom, Dante, ESnet, Internet 2, IPFNET, NTT, Renater, Singren, Sprint, SURFnet, vBNS, WIDE,& (see www.6ren.net, www.6tap.net) commercial infrastructure a few ISPs (IIJ, NTT, Telia,& ) have deployed commercial IPv6 service, more announced, mainly in Japan and Korea'ZLZIZZZpZ L@p ,"2Deployment (cont.)IPv6 address allocation 6bone procedure for test address space regional IP address registries (APNIC, ARIN, RIPE-NCC) for production address space deployment advocacy (a.k.a. marketing) IPv6 Forum: www.ipv6forum.comZ{'{' &IPv6 Timeline (A pragmatic projection)'U&IPv6 Timeline (A pragmatic projection)'U&IPv6 Timeline (A pragmatic projection)'U&IPv6 Timeline (A pragmatic projection)'UMuch Still To Dothough IPv6 today has all the functional capability of IPv4, implementations are not as advanced (e.g., with respect to performance, multicast support, compactness, instrumentation, etc.) deployment has only just begun much work to be done moving application, middleware, and management software to IPv6 much training work to be done (application developers, network administrators, sales staff,& ) many of the advanced features of IPv6 still need specification, implementation, and deployment workL=ZZa[?eHRecent IPv6  Hot Topics in the IETF multihoming address selection address allocation DNS discovery 3GPP usage of IPv6 anycast addressing scoped address architecture flow-label semantics API issues (flow label, traffic class, PMTU discovery, scoping,& )0Z7Z7  :enhanced router-to-host info site renumbering procedures inter-domain multicast routing address propagation and AAA issues of different access scenarios end-to-end security vs. firewalls and, of course, transition / co-existence / interoperability with IPv4 (a bewildering array of transition tools and techniques);;"8 The End /8Pv ` ̙33` ` ff3333f` 333MMM` f` f` 3>?" dd@ ~?" dd2@%  " @ ` n?" dZ( @n?" dd@  @@``PT    @ ` `(p>>   80( D L  c $X"  0 00P  6 P  T Click to edit Master title style! !  0   RClick to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level!     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V[E[SVV[E[SV`TE[SV`T": @B 1t  `DԔ?"@p@ B 2t  `DԔ?"@p@  3t Z@ 1?"N\Q0  @GlobalH t 0޽h ?O@.t0t(t)t .  xn( 󾂣Gelu6 x x <X@   r x S @P    x Zx@ o?P@ @@ @ interface ID   x Z8@ o?P@ @ 50 x Z@ o?Pp@ > 1111111010   x Z؝@ o? @@  = subnet ID   x Z8@ o? @ @  @ interface ID    x Z@ o? @  50  x ZX@ o? p  > 1111111011  B  x  `Do?@ B  x  `Do?@ @  x Z@ 1?  ;10 bits x Zx@ 1?%  ;54 bits x Zؠ@ 1?  ;64 bitsB x  `Do?pB x  `Do?@@@ @B x  `Do?@@ @@ x Z8@ 1?@: ;10 bits x Z@ 1?@p: ;38 bits x Z@ 1?f` ;64 bitsB x  `Do?@p@B x  `Do?@@@ x ZX@ 1?f ` ;16 bitsH x 0޽h ?   vp E = | (  | | C x@wawa1 ?P    | C xx@wawa1 ?P@  2X@ XXx,t | Zأ@wawa1?;  54 | Z8@wawa1?;   <112 bits   | Z@wawa1?;  58 | ZX@wawa1? 0 :group ID  | Z@wawa1?N@ 7scope  | Zx@wawa1?` 7flagsdB  | <1?;;dB  | <1?;`;dB  | <1?;<;  | Zئ@ o? <11111111   | Z@ o?@ > |B | TDo?``|B | TDo? | Z@wawa1?;  54dB | <1?;`;H | 0޽h ? a(  NF(    TX@1?6%@V @   Z@ o?6@@V >   Z@ 1?6V xGlobal Unicast,|B  TD1?V@@  ZB 1?Z 88ths|B  TD1?V|B  TD1?V|B   TD1?V |B   TD1?V@ @ |B   TD1?V |B   TD1?V|B   TD1?V|B  TD1?V@@   0e0e    Bx CDEF  1 8c8c     ?1 d0u0@Ty2 NP'p<'pA)BCD|E||[ x x [ @`c=   ZB 1?6@V C Reserved*    Z B 1?z :  ;1024ths  Z!B 1?6@V PReserved,   Z!B o? @6  >   Z("B 1? @ @6  C Multicast  |B  TD1?6  |B  TD1?6 |B  TD1?6 @ @ |B  TD1?6 |B  TD1?6  |B  TD1?6  |B  TD1?6 @@   Z"B 1? @ 6  nSite-Local Unicast   Z#B 1?  6  nLink-Local Unicast W  Th$B 1?\ d * Part of the first reserved 8th of space is allocated to various special-purpose addresses, currently including the Unspecified, Loopback, IPv4-Embedded, and NSAP-Embedded addresses, altogether consuming ~128th of total space.x    8^r  S $BP   H  0޽h ?   <(  ~  s *%BP   ~  s *%B@   H  0޽h ? ̙33 vp H@(    C xH&Bwawa1 ?P     C x'Bwawa1 ?  H  0޽h ? a(   `$(  `r ` S P   r ` S   H ` 0޽h ?   0d$( @( dr d S xP   r d S   H d 0޽h ?   P:( x x  c $(P   j  BA?P0P   ZX o? @ `  @ |B  TDo?` |B  TDo? @|B  TDo?@ P @|B  TDo?@@ @ 2    `h_ o?  @    Z_ o?  @ |B   TDo?0@@|B   TDo?@@|B   TDo?0 0|B  TDo?02  Z^ o?p @   ZH^ 1? |   > home agent   Z] 1?  Phome location of mobile host  Z\ 1? A foreign agent  Z\ 1?Hp ? mobile host |B  TDo?2  ZHX o? @   Z8O  1?T Hcorrespondent hostB  ZDԔ?` P ,$D ,B @ ZDԔ?  @P ,$D ,B  ZD)?  @P ,$D ,B @ ZDԔ?@ ,$D ,B  ZDԔ?@ ,$D ,f ` # `,$D ,B B TDԔ? B  TDԔ? B  ZDԔ?`,$D ,H  0޽h ?   7/`$$(  x  c $O P   j  BA?P0P   ZxN  o? @ `  @ |B  TDo?` |B  TDo? @|B  TDo?@ P @|B  TDo?@@ @ 2    `J  o?  @    ZO  o?  @ |B   TDo?0@@|B   TDo?@@|B   TDo?0 0|B  TDo?02  ZK  o?p @   ZXJ  1? |   > home agent   Z" 1?  Phome location of mobile host  Z$ 1?Hp ? mobile host |B  TDo?2  Z& o? @   Z& 1?T Hcorrespondent hostB  ZDԔ?` P ,$D ,B @ ZDԔ? P ,$D ,B  ZD)? P ,$D ,f ` # `,$D ,B B TDԔ? B  TDԔ? B  ZDԔ?`,$D ,f ` # `,$D ,B  TD>?`B  TD>? B   ZD>? ,$D ,f ` !# `,$D ,B "B TDԔ? B # TDԔ? B $ ZDԔ?`,$D ,H  0޽h ? |      !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijmnopqrstuvwxy{|}~ ,$p((  ( (  0Q)P   H ( 0޽h ?   \8(   \r \ S P    \ S H   8bH \ 0޽h ?  vp `$(  `r ` S 8P   r ` S   H ` 0޽h ?  vp d$(   dr d S P   r d S   H d 0޽h ?  vp h$( " h 8' "  hr h S xP   r h S 8  H h 0޽h ? | ,$,(  , ,  0P   H , 0޽h ?  vp tl(    C xwawa1 ?P     C xxwawa1 ?<$<  H  0޽h ? a(  4P(  4r 4 S }P    4 S }<$<  H 4 0޽h ? *  j( @ x  c $~P     c $<$<  H  0޽h ? *  j(  x  c $P     c $(0<$<  H  0޽h ? T. vp -- ;@@d-(  ~  s *HyX(i   !L = ;l #  =;l  Z1? l <Q1   Z1? %l <Q2   Zh1?% l <Q3   ZȂ1? ;l <Q4   Z(o? ;h >2007    Z1?G  l <Q1    Z1? i l <Q2    ZH1?i  l <Q3    Z1?  l <Q4    Zo?G  h >2004   Zh1?  l <Q1   Zȅ1? # l <Q2   Z(1?#  l <Q3   Z1? A l <Q4   Zo? A h >2003   ZH1?= l <Q1   Z1? ^l <Q2   Z1?^ l <Q3   Zh1? l <Q4   ZȈo?= h >2000   Z(1? l <Q1   Zh1? l <Q2   Z1? -l <Q3   Z(1?- l <Q4   Zo? h >2001   Z1? Ql <Q1   ZH1?Q l <Q2   Z1? pl <Q3    Z1?p l <Q4  ! Zho? h >2002  " Z1? l <Q1  # Z(1? l <Q2  $ Z1? 8l <Q3  % Z1?8 l <Q4  & ZHo? h >2005  ' Z1? [l <Q1  ( Z1?[ l <Q2  ) Zh1? zl <Q3  * Z1?z  l <Q4  + Z(o?  h >2006 L  } Z  @# } Z  - < } Z  ~" Consumer adoption <= Dur. 5+ yrs.# U#  . HH3dp} Z  = => UL P 4  /# c<  0 <D3P  V Early adopter,  1 Bh D3d 4  B  F =`  = `  3 0 b_  ~" Appl. Porting <= Duration 3+ yrs.# U# 4 H!3d=`  = => UF v f  ?    6 <!v   L Enterprise adopt. U 7 H"3d f  H<= 3+ yrs. =>  UF  /  >    ; <H2'   uadoption <= Dur. 3+ yrs. U   : B23 d  @ ISP  U 9 Hh23d /  = => UH  0޽h ? l. / vp J/B/0=R.(  !L = ;l #  =;l  ZȄ21? l <Q1   Z(21? %l <Q2   Z21?% l <Q3   Z21? ;l <Q4   ZH2o? ;h >2007   Z21?G  l <Q1    Z21? i l <Q2    Zh21?i  l <Q3    Zȇ21?  l <Q4    Z(2o?G  h >2004    Z21?  l <Q1   Z21? # l <Q2   ZH21?#  l <Q3   Z21? A l <Q4   Z2o? A h >2003   Zh21?= l <Q1   ZȊ21? ^l <Q2   Z(21?^ l <Q3   Z21? l <Q4   Z2o?= h >2000   ZH21? l <Q1   Z21? l <Q2   Z21? -l <Q3   Zh21?- l <Q4   Zȍ2o? h >2001   Z(21? Ql <Q1   Z21?Q l <Q2   Z21? pl <Q3   Z21?p l <Q4    Zh2o? h >2002  ! Z21? l <Q1  " Z(21? l <Q2  # Z21? 8l <Q3  $ Z21?8 l <Q4  % ZH2o? h >2005  & Z21? [l <Q1  ' Z21?[ l <Q2  ( Zh21? zl <Q3  ) Z21?z  l <Q4  * Z(2o?  h >2006  , # l2 ?yX(i   |B = TDp?0@ 0L  } Z  @# p M  A 62 } Z  ~" Consumer adoption <= Dur. 5+ yrs.# U#  B B23dp} Z  = => UL P 4  C# c<  D <2D3P  V Early adopter,  E B2D3d 4  B  L =`  F# uS  G s *(2b_  ~" Appl. Porting <= Duration 3+ yrs.# U# H B23d=`  = => UL v f  I#  Qk  J 6H2v   L Enterprise adopt. U K B23d f  H<= 3+ yrs. =>  UL  /  L#  F_  M 62'   uadoption <= Dur. 3+ yrs. U   N <23 d  @ ISP  U O B23d /  = => U R  `H2AA ?`c U t <AsiaH  0޽h ? l.  1 vp 00@?T40(  !L = ;l #  =;l  Z21? l <Q1   ZT41? %l <Q2   ZhT41?% l <Q3   ZT41? ;l <Q4   Z(U4o? ;h >2007   ZU41?G  l <Q1    ZU41? i l <Q2    ZHV41?i  l <Q3    ZV41?  l <Q4    ZW4o?G  h >2004    ZhW41?  l <Q1   ZW41? # l <Q2   Z(X41?#  l <Q3   ZX41? A l <Q4   ZX4o? A h >2003   ZHY41?= l <Q1   ZY41? ^l <Q2   ZZ41?^ l <Q3   ZhZ41? l <Q4   ZZ4o?= h >2000   Z([41? l <Q1   Z[41? l <Q2   Z[41? -l <Q3   ZH\41?- l <Q4   Z\4o? h >2001   Z]41? Ql <Q1   Zh]41?Q l <Q2   Z]41? pl <Q3   Z(^41?p l <Q4    Z^4o? h >2002  ! Z^41? l <Q1  " ZH_41? l <Q2  # Z_41? 8l <Q3  $ Z41?8 l <Q4  % Zx4o? h >2005  & Z41? [l <Q1  ' Z841?[ l <Q2  ( Z41? zl <Q3  ) Z41?z  l <Q4  * ZX4o?  h >2006  , # l4 ?yX(i   |B = TDp?0@ 0|B > TDp?0@ 0L  } Z  B# } Z  C 64 } Z  ~" Consumer adoption <= Dur. 5+ yrs.# U#  D B43dp} Z  = => UL P 4  E# c<  F <84D3P  V Early adopter,  G B4D3d 4  B  L =`  H# `  I s *X4b_  ~" Appl. Porting <= Duration 3+ yrs.# U# J B43d=`  = => UL v f  K#    L 6x4v   L Enterprise adopt. U M B843d f  H<= 3+ yrs. =>  UL  /  N#    O 64'   uadoption <= Dur. 3+ yrs. U   P <43 d  @ ISP  U Q B43d /  = => U S  `x4AA ?` t >Europe T  `4AA ?`c U t <AsiaH  0޽h ? l. 1 vp P1H1P?Q  0(   !L = ;l  #  =;l   Z841? l <Q1    Z41? %l <Q2    Z41?% l <Q3    ZX41? ;l <Q4    Z4o? ;h >2007    Z*51?G  l <Q1    Z(+51? i l <Q2    Z+51?i  l <Q3    Z+51?  l <Q4    ZH,5o?G  h >2004    Z,51?  l <Q1    Z-51? # l <Q2    Zh-51?#  l <Q3    Z-51? A l <Q4    Z(.5o? A h >2003    Z.51?= l <Q1    Z.51? ^l <Q2    ZH/51?^ l <Q3    Z/51? l <Q4    Z05o?= h >2000    Zh051? l <Q1    Z051? l <Q2    Z(151? -l <Q3    Z151?- l <Q4    Z15o? h >2001    ZH251? Ql <Q1    Z251?Q l <Q2    Z351? pl <Q3    Zh351?p l <Q4    Z35o? h >2002  !  Z(451? l <Q1  "  Z451? l <Q2  #  Z451? 8l <Q3  $  ZH551?8 l <Q4  %  Z55o? h >2005  &  Z651? [l <Q1  '  Zh651?[ l <Q2  (  ZX51? zl <Q3  )  Z51?z  l <Q4  *  Z5o?  h >2006  +   `x5AA ?`t @Americas   ,  # l85 ?yX(i   |B =  TDp?0@ 0|B >  TDp?0@ 0|B ?  TDp?0@0 @   `5AA ?` t >Europe A   `5AA ?`c U t <Asia C  <X5p  M  ~" Consumer adoption <= Dur. 5+ yrs.# U#  D  H53dp M  = => UL P 4  E # c<  F  <x5D3P  V Early adopter,  G  B85D3d 4  B  L =`  H # uMS  I  s *5b_  ~" Appl. Porting <= Duration 3+ yrs.# U# J  BX53d=`  = => U L  <5   L Enterprise adopt. U M  Hx53d e H<= 3+ yrs. =>  UL  /  N #    O  685'   uadoption <= Dur. 3+ yrs. U   P  <53 d  @ ISP  U Q  BX53d /  = => UH   0޽h ? l.   p\( | x  c $X/6P     c $/6L<$<  H  0޽h ?   WO(  x  c $06P   x  c $16   x  c $816l   /  Z16 1?h!,$D, q;Note: this indicates vitality, not incompleteness, of IPv6!<(2<H  0޽h ? j ( >> r  S 8C   H  0޽h ? A @"(  ^  S !     S _ ?    IPng stands for IP Next Generation, and was the working name for the new IP in the early phase of its development.pH  0޽h ? a($ A t(  ^  S !     S 8"$ ?   p&an address s type is determined by its leading bits: type binary prefix unspecified 0000& & .0000 (128 bits) loopback 0000& & .0001 (128 bits) multicast 11111111 (8 bits) unicast / anycast everything else the unspecified address indicates the absence of an address the loopback address is a special-case unicast address anycast addresses are indistinguishable from unicast there are several choices for configuring the interface ID of an address: manual configuration DHCPv6 (configures whole address) automatic derivation from MAC address or other wired-in unique number pseudo-random generation (for client privacy) the latter two choices enable  serverless or  stateless autoconfiguration, when combined with high-order part of the address learned via Router Advertisements |9 M r 3Q %  WH  0޽h ? a(r<0_ 6 w ce06Rv'@c !m@xx|q#ph~J{`9  ,.rFHJ>lt})ϢӤ%"DocumentSummaryInformation8\ Current UserC- Oh+'0`, DP t   '/IPv6: The New Version of the Internet ProtocolsPv6Pv6Pv6Pv6!Home Mac:Documents:blue templaterneSteve Deeringen164Microsoft PowerPoint 4.0emp@$G@)P@L7@mMV GPICT @@ HH Z, ww ww ww ww ww || || || || || || || || || Ԃ Ԃ Ԃ Ԃ ҂ ҂ ҂ ҂ ҋ ҋ ҋ ҋFϋ`ϋ   ϋ  ϋ  ϋ ϋ  ϋ ϋ  ϗ ΗϗΗϗΗ җ җ җ җ җ[ѤФҤФҤѤ  Ѥ Ф  Ҥ Ф  Ӥ Ф  Ӥ ФҤѤ Ҳ Ҳ Ҳ Ҳ Ҳ Ҳ Ҳ ҿ ҿc   ~    ~   u!                     -      0               On-screen Show5 :Times HelveticaArialCourier b+w templateIPv6 Overview & Status ReportDBackground Technology Overview Deployment Strategies Current Status Why IPv6? (Theoretical Reasons)IP Address Allocation HistoryOther Benefits of IPv6%Why IPv6? (Current Business Reasons)DBackground Technology Overview Deployment Strategies Current Status&IPv6 Header compared to IPv4 HeaderSummary of Header Changes "How Was IPv6 Address Size Chosen?!Text Representation of Addresses)Text Representation of Addresses (cont.)Basic Address TypesAddress Type Prefixes$General Format of Unicast Addresses(Interface ID Field of Unicast AddressesConfiguring Interface IDsGlobal Unicast Addresses'Why Fixed-Length, 16-bit Subnet Field?The HD Ratio (RFC-3194)!HD Ratio Applied to 45-bit Space-TLA / NLA Terminology (Soon to be Obsolete!)Non-Global AddressesAddress Zones and ScopesProperties of Zones and Scopes'Properties of Zones and Scopes (cont.)Zone BoundariesNon-Global Unicast AddressesMulticast AddressesAddress Space LayoutHAn Interface on an IPv6 Node Can, and Usually Will, Have Many Addresses IPv6 Routing-Serverless Autoconfiguration (Plug-n-Play)%Auto-Reconfiguration (Renumbering)Mobile IP (v4 version)Mobile IP (v6 version)DBackground Technology Overview Deployment Strategies Current Status/IPv4-IPv6 Transition / Co-Existence TechniquesDual-Stack Approach-Tunnels to Get Through IPv6-Ignorant Routers TranslationDBackground Technology Overview Deployment Strategies Current Status StandardsImplementations DeploymentDeployment (cont.)'IPv6 Timeline (A pragmatic projection)'IPv6 Timeline (A pragmatic projection)'IPv6 Timeline (A pragmatic projection)'IPv6 Timeline (A pragmatic projection)Much Still To Do%Recent IPv6 Hot Topics in the IETFThe End  Fonts UsedDesign Template Slide Titles5%_ Steve Deering